Many of the city's local favorite dishes are based on ducks, including Nanjing salted duck, duck blood and vermicelli soup, and duck oil pancake. [49] The succeeding Xuande Emperor remained in Beijing, so the aforementioned Nanjing government eventually became a permanent institution. Nanjing is at the intersection of the Yangtze River, an east–west water transport artery, and the Nanjing–Beijing railway, a north–south land transport artery, hence the name “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north”. Off the competition fields, an integrated culture and education program focused on discussions about education, Olympic values, social challenges, and cultural diversity. Archaeological discovery shows that "Nanjing Man" lived more than 500 thousand years ago. In East China, in terms of urban population and urban area, the largest city is Shanghai, and the second largest is Nanjing. In 1999, 77,394 residents belonged to officially defined minorities, among which the vast majority (64,832) were Hui, contributing 83.76 percent to the minority population. Nanjing Massacre, conventional Nanking Massacre, also called Rape of Nanjing, (December 1937–January 1938), mass killing and ravaging of Chinese citizens and capitulated soldiers by soldiers of the Japanese Imperial Army after its seizure of Nanjing, China, on December 13, 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War that preceded World War II. [74] Their troops occupied Nanjing in December and carried out the systematic and brutal Nanking massacre (the "Rape of Nanking"). Nanjing University is considered to be one of the top national universities nationwide. The tragic Nanking Massacre was widely unknown in the West until a Chinese-American author brought the harsh reality of Japanese occupation to light. There was a massive cultivating in the area of Nanjing from the Three Kingdoms period to Southern dynasties. (Buch (gebunden)) - portofrei bei eBook.de Jiangsu Province Kun Opera is one of the best theaters for Kunqu, China's oldest stage art. 5The claimed province of Taiwan no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. Instead, Nanjing, as a tourist destination, hosts a series of government-organized events throughout the year. [125] Lukou Airport was opened on 28 June 1997, replacing Nanjing Dajiaochang Airport as the main airport serving Nanjing. In 2013, Nanjing airport handled 15,011,792 passengers and 255,788.6 tonnes of freight. Here in Yecheng, Yuecheng and Jinling Yi, both Cheng and Yi mean city. The New York Times bestselling account of one of history's most brutal -- and forgotten -- massacres, when the Japanese army destroyed China's capital city on the eve of World War II In December 1937, one of the most horrific atrocities in the long annals of wartime barbarity occurred. Lexington books. In 2013 the city's GDP was RMB 801 billion (3rd in Jiangsu), and GDP per capita (current price) was RMB 98,174(US$16041), an 11 percent increase from 2012. The Japanese army swept into the ancient city of Nanking (what was then the capital of China), and within weeks, more than … Some of the leading art groups of China are based in Nanjing; they include the Qianxian Dance Company, Nanjing Dance Company, Jiangsu Peking Opera Institute and Nanjing Xiaohonghua Art Company among others. During the period of North–South division, Nanjing remained the capital of the Southern dynasties for more than two and a half centuries. Through readings of historical account by actors and the testimony of survivors, the events of the Nanjing Massacre are recounted. Since then four more bridges and two tunnels have been built. Being one of the four ancient capitals of China, Nanjing has always been a cultural center attracting intellectuals from all over the country. The birth rate was 8.86 percent and the death rate was 6.88 percent. Almost none of them, however, are still celebrated by modern Nanjingese. [24] According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming dynasty, Chen Yi, Fuchai, King of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng in today's Nanjing area in 495 BC. The OECD estimated the encompassing metropolitan area at the time as 11.7 million. A few days before the fall of the city, the National Government of China was relocated to the southwestern city Chungking (Chongqing) and resumed Chinese resistance. "梁都之时,城中二十八万户,西至石头,东至倪塘,南至石子冈,北过蒋山,东西南北各四十里。", In the 3rd year of Jianyan (1129), Jiankang became Temporary Capital (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDennerline2002 (, Ho Ping-ti. Nanjing also possesses abundant water resources, both from the Yangtze River and groundwater. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}32°03′00″N 118°46′00″E / 32.05°N 118.766667°E / 32.05; 118.766667, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Population of Nanking in December of 1937, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Population of capital city and cities of 100,000 and more inhabitants", Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs, National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing University of Science & Technology, Nanjing University of Finance & Economics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Timeline_of_Nanjing&oldid=987431457, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 317 - Capital of Eastern Jin Dynasty relocated to, 1381 - Imperial University campus relocated to. The rebellion destroyed most of the former Ming imperial buildings in the city, including the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing. In the spring, the radish tastes very juicy and sweet. Planetary History [] Early History []. [2002] (2002). The Rape of Nanking is arguably one of the most atrocious massacres in the last two hundred years, but for the most part, it has gone relatively unnoticed by Western scholars and the general public. As an important regional hub in the Yangtze River Delta, Nanjing is well-connected by over 60 state and provincial highways to all parts of China. The city has also attracted foreign investment, multinational firms such as Siemens, Ericsson, Volkswagen, Iveco, A.O. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Its duck and goose dishes are well known among Chinese for centuries. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. The city is planning to complete a 17-line Metro and light-rail system by 2030. The Ming dynasty drawing Prosperous Nanjing (南都繁会图卷; Nándū Fánhuì Tújuǎn) depicts a vivid market scene bustling with people and full of various sorts of shops. Meanwhile, a Yangtze River deep-water channel is under construction to enable Nanjing to handle the navigation of 50,000 DWT vessels from the East China Sea. History textbooks were reworded to describe the Sino-Japanese War as "advancing in and out of China" instead of "aggression" which was deemed to be a more pejorative term. Especially the textiles section, there were about 200,000 craftsmen by the late Qing. Other libraries, such as city-owned Jinling Library and various district libraries, also provide considerable amount of information to citizens. [41] According to Odoric of Pordenone, Chilenfu (Nanjing) had 360 stone bridges, which were finer than anywhere else in the world. Vaughan, C. Edwin. This makes Nanking one of the largest mass rapes in history. THE AWAKENING OF CHINA: 1793–1949. Southeast University is also among the most famous universities in China and is considered to be one of the best universities for Architecture and Engineering in China. This article incorporates information from the Chinese Wikipedia. 571BC or 472BC In 571BC, nearly 2,600 years ago, a small village called Tangyi was situated in today’s Liuhe District, a northern suburb of Nanjing. It is considered a conservative and traditional troupe. [47] In 1421, the Yongle Emperor relocated the capital to Beijing. 2Open Coastal Cities. [66] Koxinga's Ming loyalists fought against a majority Han Chinese Bannermen Qing army when attacking Nanjing. Meanwhile, the satins from Nanjing were called "tribute satins" ("贡缎"), because they were usually paid as tribute to the monarchy. [60] On June 6, Dodo's troops approached Nanjing, and the commander of the city's garrison, Zhao the Earl of Xincheng, promptly surrendered the city to them. [58], Zhu Yousong, however, fared a lot worse than his ancestor Zhu Yuanzhang three centuries earlier. Today, with a long cultural tradition and strong support from local educational institutions, Nanjing is commonly viewed as a "city of culture" and one of the more pleasant cities to live in China. As a major Chinese city, Nanjing is home to many professional sports teams. Nanjing was threatened to be invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War, which was ended by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. ¹ — Taiwan is administered as a streamlined province by the, Capital of the republic and Nanking Massacre. Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River Bridge built. Im Dezember 1937 eroberten japanische Kräfte die damalige Hauptstadt der Republik China Nanking, nachdem sich die chinesischen Verteidiger chaotisch aus der Stadt zurückgezogen hatten. Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries. It was home of the admiral Zheng He, who went to sail the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and it was visited by foreign dignitaries, such as a king from Borneo (渤泥; Bóní), who died during his visit to China in 1408. [87], A dense wave of smog began in the central and east parts of China on 2 December 2013 across a distance of around 1,200 km (750 mi),[89] including Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai and Zhejiang. The Xinhai Revolution led to the founding of the Republic of China in January 1912 with Sun Yat-sen as the first provisional president and Nanjing was selected as its new capital. Nov 22, 2019 - Explore Sun Li-jen's board "Nanking Massacre" on Pinterest. Both of these two are comprehensive sports centers, including stadium, gymnasium, natatorium, tennis court, etc. Both the Qing viceroy and the Taiping king resided in buildings that would later be known as the Presidential Palace. [f], Nanjing borders Yangzhou to the northeast (one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze); Zhenjiang to the east (one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze); and Changzhou to the southeast. Nanjing Museum, formerly known as National Central Museum during ROC period, is the first modern museum and remains as one of the leading museums in China having 400,000 items in its permanent collection. On April 23, the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) captured Nanjing. 1Special economic-zone Cities. Tunnel, Xianxin Rd. A lack of cold air flow, combined with slow-moving air masses carrying industrial emissions, collected airborne pollutants to form a thick layer of smog over the region. Nanjing) während des Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Krieges. Nanjing hosted the 10th National Games of PRC in 2005 and hosted the 2nd summer Youth Olympic Games in 2014.[142][143]. Nanjing's airport, Lukou International Airport NKG, serves both national and international flights. Since large numbers of immigrants flooded into the area, reclamation was quite common in its remote parts, which promoted its agricultural development. Typhoons are uncommon but possible in the late stages of summer and early part of autumn. In 1940, a Japanese-collaborationist government known as the "Nanjing Regime" or "Reorganized National Government of China" led by Wang Jingwei was established in Nanjing as a rival to Chiang Kai-shek's government in Chongqing. In ancient times the area was known as, A small museum and tomb honoring the 15th century seafaring admiral, 100 National Key Universities are universities of. cSeparate state-planning cities. [141] Jiangsu Nangang Basketball Club is a competitive team which has long been one of the major clubs fighting for the title in China top level league, CBA. The sex ratio of the city population was 107.31 males to 100 females. [92] On 3 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter average over 943 micrograms per cubic meter,[93] falling to over 338 micrograms per cubic meter on 4 December 2013. Nanjing is connected to the national high-speed railway network by Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway and Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line, with several more high-speed rail lines under construction. The sub-provincial city of Nanjing is divided into 11 districts. "It will come as no surprise that the top performing Chinese cities in the Nature Index are Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing. The old Mission property would become the No. Since becoming a southern capital, the city has been called Nanking (Nanjing, The areas covered by such geographical names as Jiangnan, Dongnan and Xiajiang are not precisely defined. [25] Later in 473 BC, the State of Yue conquered Wu and constructed the fort of Yuecheng (越城) on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate. There are a number of industrial zones in Nanjing. The Nanjing 2014 Youth Olympic Games featured all 28 sports on the Olympic program and were held from 16 to 28 August. [14] The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Koxinga's forces intercepted these letters and after reading them Koxinga may have started to regret his deliberate delays allowing the Qing to prepare for a final massive battle instead of swiftly attacking Nanjing. Edited and Translated by Martin Kieffer. [129] The Yangtze River's 12.5-meter-deep waterway enables 50,000-ton-class ocean ships directly arrive at the Nanjing Port, and the ocean ships with the capacities of 100,000 tons or above can also reach the port after load reduction in the Yangtze River's high-tide period. The six dynasties were: Eastern Wu (222–280), Eastern Jin dynasty (317–420) and four southern dynasties (420–589). Nanjing University Library is the second largest university libraries in China after Peking University Library, and the fifth largest nationwide, especially in the number of precious collections. [95] The smog dissipated 12 December. It has many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. The slogan of the 2014 Youth Olympic Games was "Share the Games, Share our Dreams". [56][57] His short reign was described by later historians as the first reign of the so-called Southern Ming dynasty. A number of huge department stores such as Zhongyang Shangchang sprouted up, attracting merchants from all over China to sell their products in Nanjing. Nanjing ist ein politisch kulturelles Zentrum Chinas mit einer langen Geschichte. [23] In the late period of Shang dynasty, Taibo of Zhou came to Jiangnan and established Wu state, and the first stop is in Nanjing area according to some historians based on discoveries in Taowu and Hushu culture. The official told his children in Nanjing to prepare to defect to Koxinga which he himself was preparing to do. Den Protokollen der Tokioter Prozesse zufolge wurden über 200.000, anderen Schätzungen zufolge über 300.000 Zivilisten und Kriegsgefangene ermordet sowie rund 20.000 Mädchen und Frauen vergewaltigt. [51] In 1441, Emperor Yingzong ordered to not to prefix the word "provisional" (行在) on the Beijing Government seals any longer, while Nanjing's need to prefix "Nanjing" for distinguishing purposes remained. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum and Nanjing Art Museum. Wutaishan Sports Center was established in 1952 and it was one of the oldest and most advanced stadiums in early time of People's Republic of China. [50] In official Ming documents of 1425 to 1441, Nanjing was designated as the capital and Beijing was designated as the temporary capital. The phoenix birds once frolicked on Phoenix Terrace. At first, the landless peasants benefited from it, then the senior officials and aristocratic families. Nanjing has some of the oldest and finest museums in China. Big state-owned firms include Panda Electronics, Yangzi Petrochemical, Jinling Petrochemical, Nanjing Chemical, Jincheng Motors, Jinling Pharmaceutical, Chenguang and NARI. They sometimes went door-to-door, dragging out women and even small children and violently gang-raping them. This is the earliest written record of Nanjing as a city. 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